Tuesday, May 5, 2015

Searching within a document, human memory, and other things you'd like Google search to do

A while ago, Regular Reader Rosemary asked a good question that I've been thinking about.  Here's what she wrote.  (I've edited it a bit.)  

Sometimes a challenge is more about a concept than it is about specific words. Dr. Dan says that "your recollection may be how you remembered it but not necessarily written in that context." As you said this is a good intro to a reference interview.

What I started to see [ in the SRS Challenge 4/8/15 - "Can you find a reference for..." ] was a concept - The Law of Least Effort. As J. Matthews says on Page 36 “The Law of Least Effort is alive and well and operates in the physical library spaces”

It makes sense that using this concept we can find elsewhere a reference to card catalogue locations affecting people’s search efforts.  But the problem is more than just the specific words--it's all of the other words I'd like to be using in my search.  

[ Later, Rosemary amplified on this...]

Maybe we need a “Super Control F.” That is, the ability to have multiple words (including unrelated) or even possibly vague words in the search that can be interpreted in the search box. 

If we had a Google Search Box within the document we would have more tools like I’ve already mentioned or more. Another thought is to have a way to draw out a keyword list out of a document. Nowadays we have keywords/tags for documents often attached. But historically they often don’t exist especially for journals/papers. Perhaps there are some tools that now exist.  This challenge got me thinking about how I do things? Perhaps there are better ways. Can Google Search help us search within a document?

Another lesson for me is the use "references". Each time I looked/scanned at a document I would then scan the references at the end the article/book/paper.  With title and author we possibly had a lead but with this particular challenge, vague keywords made this more difficult. I wonder how can we make the most out of these possible leads besides scanning each one.

There are many great questions in here, but let me make a couple of comments.  

1. Searching for a concept and choosing keywords that can find it.  Rosemary points out that the Principle of  Least Effort is somewhat difficult to find, given the words needed to get to it.  This is known as the Vocabulary Problem (or the vocabulary mismatch problem). It's been studied since at least 1981, when my buddy George Furnas first wrote about it.  The basic problem is that on average 80% of the times different people (even experts in the same field) will name the same concept with different words. There are usually tens of possible names that can be attributed to the same thing.

In our case, we don't know what the concept is that we're looking for--so how do we begin a reasonable search for it?  

I suspect that this is one of those gumption problems--you just have to keep searching for the concept. 

On the other hand, there is an intuition for a concept that good searchers need to develop.  That is, you have to have the sense that such a concept (such as least effort) would exist, and that you can find it.  

How do we develop such an intuition?  I really don't know.  But I suspect that reading widely will lay the foundation for such intuitions. 

2. Your memory is terrible.  As we've discussed, you might think your memory is great, but the truth is, your memory is fallible in many ways.  In particular I remember may/may-not be the way I wrote it in my notes, or the way it appears in reality.  (This was the point of the post about "Can you find the reference for...")  My recollection was different in many ways from the reality.  

Being a great searcher means knowing how to back off from "things you know are in the target."  I remember something as having "3 levels" of abstraction--but the reality is that it's 4.  I might remember my friend Grace as having sent me a particular email message, when in reality it was Bob (he's a co-worker of Grace, hence the mistake).  

As you search, in particular when you get stuck--try backing away from the things you're sure about.  Look for reasonable alternatives (different names, different dates, different places), and see if that doesn't help. 

3.  Super-control-F function.  Rosemary wants to be able to search for multiple things at a time.  Turns out that there are extensions for Chrome and Firefox that allow you to search for regular expressions.   A regular expression is basically a pattern that matches pieces of text in the document.  For instance, using a regular expression like  [Apple | Facebook | Google] I can search for all three of those company names at the same time.  If you're using one of the regular expression plug-ins, this is exactly a "super-control" F function.    

4. Want search by synonym.  Interestingly, Rosemary's note prompted me to check for other Chrome extensions--and it turns out there's one that searches for synonyms of the search term.  (e.g., "car" for "transportation")  It's an interesting idea.  I've got it installed now, we'll see how often I use it.  Thing is, you can have it now.  (You just need to search for it...)  

5. Want fine-grain search within a document.  I agree with Rosemary that having find capabilities within a long document for things like [ word1 AROUND(3) word2 ] or [ intitle:term1 ] would be very nice.  The good news here is that symbol search (e.g., for characters like /, #, @, ~, etc., things that Google ignores in its search function), work quite nicely with Control-F.  (The bigger problem, and the reason Google doesn't implement such a thing, is that 90% of people don't know about Control-F.  Why build in something else that would be used by even fewer people?)    

6. Using references at end of the a document.  Is there any better method of scanning them rather than just scanning them?  Alas, I don't know of anything better than taking good notes.  

If you find one, though, let me know!  

In the meantime, Search On! 

Monday, May 4, 2015

A new video on SITE: from Google's Media team

The good people at the +Google for Media just posted a new video about how to use the site: operator.  Regular Readers of SRS know this, and I have to admit that site: is the operator I use the most.  

Still, it's nice to see this new, classy video showing a couple of nice examples.  Beautifully done by Joyce Hau and the Google for Media team.  (I consult with them from time to time, so this wasn't a surprise to me--but I was happy to see the high production value! Good job!) 

I note, for generality, that this site: operator also works in the same way on Bing.com  


And Search On! 

Friday, May 1, 2015

Answer: Finding those elusive pics...

Turns out, it's tricky... 

Here's the Challenge for this week:

     1.  Can you find photos of Don Norman that were taken BEFORE 1997? 

The ideal answer will give a link to a photo, along with a year, and a description of what you did to find it.

Here's what I did.  
After doing all of the "obvious" searches (e.g.):  
     [ Don Norman 1900..1997 ] 
nothing much seemed to work.  I did some searching in Google Images, even Google Books, hoping for an author's photograph from one of his books.  But that didn't work out either.  
So I thought of looking for photographs that were of the various groups or projects that he was associated with over time.  
I know that people in organizations love to document what they've been doing, and will often post images of themselves at parties, meetings, or conferences as a way of documenting what they've done and celebrating their times together.  
But how would I find out what groups Don had been a part of before 1997?  
I also know that many writers and academics post a biography of their work. It could be called a bio or a resume or a Curriculum Vita  (sometimes shortened to CV).  
A quick search for: 
     [ Don Norman curriculum vitae ] 
led me to his CV, which conveniently lists all of his books, papers, projects, and (most importantly) the groups with which he's been associated.  
Working from the top, it's an impressive list of places (Neilsen/Norman; Northwestern; IDEO; UC San Diego; KAIST), and organizations (National Academy of Engineering; multiple university boards;  International Journal of Design...). 
I thought what I'd do is to search for photographs with each of those organizations--but I excluded any that he had joined after 1997 (luckily, that eliminates a lot of them).  
My search pattern was something like this, where organization is a variable term: 

     [ "Don Norman" OR "Donald Norman" photograph organization ] 

and then I just plugged the different organization names into the query.  I tried a bunch (Northwestern, "Cognitive Science Series" and so on, just reading them off his CV) and was having no luck until I got to SIGCHI.  

This is the "Special Interest Group on Computer Human Interaction").  
The result of that query: 
    [ "Don Norman" OR "Donald Norman" photograph SIGCHI ]  

As you can see, there's Don's BIO, a link to the Human-Computer Interaction Institute, and then -- a huge hit! -- a link to the "Library OTHERHCI - Photo History of SIGCHI."  

I figured this looked good, so I clicked on it and landed at this page.  I filled out the search box with "Norman" (I used his last name because it's a fairly uncommon name, and pretty likely to match any images tagged with his name.) 

There are only a few hits--two of which turn out to be gold mines. 

Here's the giant archive with LOTS of photos of Don from 1982 until 2001.  As you can see, many of these photos are in black and white!  They satisfy the search target easily. 

From this source, it's pretty easy to find pictures from the '80s: 

Don Norman, 1984. From the HCIL Photo History archive

As many SearchResearchers found, there are many low-res images of Don from his Voyager CD ("Defending Human Attributes" 1994).  There are even several YouTube video extracts from that time.  

I have to admit that my favorite solution was Fred's incredible find--Don's picture from the Freshman book page, MIT, 1957.  Fred is correct:  There was, once upon a time, a Don Norman without a beard. A very nice find.  (I shoulda thought of that!)  

Search Lessons:  There are a couple of key lessons to learn here: 

1.  When searching for information about someone, it's often useful to approach the search as a problem of finding that person in the context of a group.  That's because groups often put up lots of information (and photos) about themselves that individuals don't.  

2.  Finding a resume is a great way to find the backstory of someone.  In this case, the resume (aka CV) told us what groups he was part of over time.  This gives you a bunch of additional clues about what to seek.  

3.  Stick-to-it-tiveness matters.  In this case, I figured that the "search for Don in groups" would work, so I kept at it for a while.  (For the record, I spent around 20 minutes before I found the photo collection.)   It's always difficult to know when to give up, but I had a strong belief that someone would have posted some pictures of Don from one of these organizations.  If I didn't know that Don was such an active participant in these groups, I might have given up earlier.  But gumption does make a difference.  Hang in there!  

Hope you enjoyed this week's Challenge. It was definitely a Challenge!  

Many thanks to Don Norman for the idea AND the permission to use him as our test subject.  You can check out his entire web site (and buy his books) at Don Norman's home web site.

Search on! 


Thursday, April 30, 2015

The check protector in reality!

You might remember the Search Challenge about the check protector from a couple of weeks ago.  We tried to figure out what this strange device was... and we succeeded.  

Much to my delight, Jill (who owns the previously baffling object) attended my class on "Google Books and Scholar" that I gave last evening in Mountain View.  AND she brought along the check protector itself.  

What a delight to see the thing itself in reality!  

Thanks, Jill! 

(And thanks to all of the intrepid SearchResearchers who figured out exactly what it was.)  

Search on! 

Wednesday, April 29, 2015

Search Challenge (4/29/15): Finding those elusive pics...

A friend is looking... 

... for a few old photographs.  In his message to me asking this question, he pointed out that he's been around for some time, and surely there are some old images of me out there on the internet someplace.  

In his case, he's certainly right.  The problem is how to find them.  

The friend asking for help in digging up old photos from around the web is also my former boss (from the days when we worked at Apple), Don Norman.  Here's a recent photo of Don:  

The question he posed to me is today's SearchResearch's Challenge:  

     1.  Can you find photos of Don Norman that were taken BEFORE 1997? 

The ideal answer will give a link to a photo, along with a year, and a description of what you did to find it.  

Don helpfully pointed out that he was on the cover of a few design magazines (especially in Japan) around that time.  Maybe that will help.  (Or not.  You never know.)  

Here's another hint--he's always had the beard.  (And, FWIW, I had my beard when I met Don for the first time.  There wasn't any question about transference either way!)  

And it's no fair finding his personal web site's collection of images.  He presumably knows about that.  

Obviously, the real challenge here is to get verified dates with the photos, or some photo evidence that pins the date to a particular year.  

Even though Don is incredibly well-known, I found it a bit tricky to solve this problem.  Can you figure out what I did to find ~100 photos dating back to the 1980s?  

Remember to tell us HOW you found the images.  We all want to learn what method you used to come up with your findings.  

On Friday I'll come back and tell you what I did to find his pix.  

Search on! 

Saturday, April 25, 2015

Answer: Which button...

There are several ways... 

to answer this week's Challenge.  

Recall the question:  

I need to use the following device.... 

which has the following really interesting user interface: 

A higher-res version of this image

1.  There are a lot of buttons here... I want to be sure I don't push the wrong button!  Can you figure out which button changes the temperature of the seat?  Yes, that's an option here.  A friend told me so--but... which one changes the temperature?  
2.  Extra credit: What do the other buttons do? 

Answer method 1:  Let's do the obvious thing... Can we look up the characters that seem like they might be involved?  (Think about it-- if we're trying to change the temp, there's probably an HOT and COLD (or warm/cool) pair.   

It seems pretty clear that the buttons on the left are Stop and Bidet, but the others I couldn't figure out. 

Could we use Google's Translate app to help out here?   This App is available in the Play Store, and it's pretty much a point-shoot-scan-translate mobile app. 

I brought up the image on my laptop, then pointed my phone at my screen and found this: 

When I run my finger over the text in the middle and hit "translate," I find that it shows up as (Temperature settings) in translation.  

The good news here is that we found the temperature settings:  it's the buttons that are second from the right.  

The bad news is that using the Translate app doesn't work very well on the other texts.  I really DID get lucky here--some of the other buttons are either too worn out to be read accurately, or are a kind of abbreviation (like "H" and "C" on English water taps).  

I then switched to using the "write your Korean text here" in the web-based Google Translate app:  

This works, but it's kind of slow.  (Although I learned a good deal about Hangul in the process.)  

But note that sometimes the translations vary.  In the above example, I wrote  변 좌 (or what I THOUGHT was that), and it was translated as "Left side."  But using the Translate app, I find that it could also mean "

Or, I wrote  and got the translation "That."  

Here's one that was more successful: 

So, by going back and forth between using the Android-based Translation app and the writing-the-Hangul characters method, I was able to get most of the text.  

But not everything.  

I tried searching for the manual for the Panasonic DL-SH25HK by doing: 

     [ panasonic dl-sh25hk OR sh25hk  manual ] 

but mostly I found were out-of-date pages.  

I DID find a page for the Panasonic DL-SJX30HWM, which is (apparently) the same toilet seat in Japanese.  

The resolution isn't the best, but it does confirm the text I'd figured out via the Translation app.

Only then it occurred to me:  I bet I'm not the only English-only speaking person with this issue.

So I did a search for:

     [ Korean toilet controls translation ] 

and sure enough, several sites popped up.  The site Korea for Expats has a nice decoding page, with a chunk that looks like this:  

This allowed be to finally decode everything else on the panel.  Here's what I was able to figure out: 

So... the answer to this Challenge is that the two buttons second from the right control the water temperature and the toilet seat temperature.  Given the amount of wear on the surface of the buttons, it looks like you press them repeatedly until you get the right temp (that's indicated by the little lights to the left of the button).  

Denouement:  As it turned out, there was a handy user's guide hidden in the bathroom.  Naturally, after experimenting with all of the buttons, I found this on the very last day of my stay there.  Here's the hotel's guide to using the toilet: 

We did a pretty good job, all things considered!

Search Lessons:  This is a case where using multiple methods to get the answer is the best approach.  (Here we used Google Translate app on my phone, drawing in the Korean text into web-based Google Translate, and looking for someone else who has already translated some of the Korean text on toilets.)  

To double check some of these translations, I also used an online OCR system for Korean to English translation.  It's the same idea as my phone-based translation, but you have to upload an image to their service to do it.  (But this is a great method to remember when you find yourself without a phone..)  

Note that I double-checked everything, although I did ignore some of the translations that my handwritten Hangul gave me--I didn't trust my handwriting skills!  

As always, Search On!   

Thursday, April 23, 2015

I should have linked to this image yesterday... (better user interface image)

Sorry... I put the wrong (i.e., low-res) version of the Toilet User Interface into yesterday's blog post.  

Here's a better image for you to examine.  Clicking on the image below will give you the full-resolution image.  

Good searching!  

Wednesday, April 22, 2015

Search Challenge (4/23/15): Which button....

When I travel... 

I sometimes find remarkable things.  Sometimes these remarkable things require a bit of research to understand.  

In today's example, this morning I needed to use the following device: 

which has the following really interesting user interface: 

Here's a link to a higher-res version of this image.

So there I am, trying to use this rather... personal... interface. 

And this leads to this week's Challenge: 

1.  There are a lot of buttons here... I want to be sure I don't push the wrong button!  Can you figure out which button changes the temperature of the seat?  Yes, that's an option here.  A friend told me so--but... which one changes the temperature?  
2.  Extra credit: What do the other buttons do? 

Be sure to tell us HOW you figured this one out.  Inquiring minds want to know! 

Search on! 

Tuesday, April 21, 2015

Answer: Who are these mythic characters...

Okay, I'm back--now an answer... 

Remember that our challenge was to figure out who and why for these pix.  

1.  Figure out who/what these photographs depict.  In particular, are they depicting real people, or just characters from the legendary past?  In either case, who are these people?  

The ideal answer to this Challenge would tell us:  
     (1) Who is the sculpture is depicting?  
     (2) Where the sculpture + building is located? 
     (3) If you can, what's the story here?  This is a lot of work--what's being commemorated?  

For Supreme Extra Credit, can you figure out who were the models for (a) the young girl in the center of the second picture, and (b) the rather ferocious looking fellow in the first?  

Answer:  Google Image search will take care of these two problems.  
For the ferocious-looking fellow, there's an image that tells us it's the Turks Head Building Providence, Rhode Island. Then doing the obvious query, 

     [The Turks Head Building Providence, Rhode Island ]

Tells us a lot about the building itself.  The Wikipedia article tells us that the 16-story building, constructed of white brick with granite and limestone trimmings, is featured by a massive Turk's head in the center of the curved façade, reminiscent of the wooden effigy of an Ottoman warrior that formerly adorned Whitman's corner. 
There are a great many ways to go next to double-check on the Wikipedia content.  A nice way to get local information of this kind is to search in the local newspaper(s).  In this case, the local rag is the Providence Journal.  (That's easy to look up, or you could note the link at the bottom of the Wikipedia article to the newspaper.)  
      [ "Turks Head" Providence Journal]
While the newspaper has a couple of articles on the building, I found that Brown.edu (the local university) has an article about the building, written up by an architecture group there.  This confirms the basic story, and provides a LOT of detail about the design and mechanical structure of the building.   
Of course, another way to get this kind of historical background is to look for a book that covers the history of the city.  Visiting Google Books with the query: 

     [ "Turks Head" Providence history ] 

leads to a couple of books.  Providence (by MacGown, 2006) has a pair of lovely images of the Turk's Head building, one from the "original" building (around 1850) and one from 1913 of the "new" building (which looks much like the photo above).  

Here's the photo from the Providence book: 

Part of page 17 from Providence.
It's a nice picture, but I wondered if I could find another version of it. So I screenshot this image and did another search-by-image.  I was able to find a lovely, hi-res version of this image that's from a scanned postcard.  (Photo postcards were quite the thing in the early 20th century.)  Here's a small section of that photo from the left side of the card, zoomed in and cleaned-up a bit.  

It's pretty convincing that this was an early Turk's Head building. 

But as Rosemary pointed out, if you look deeper into the list of Books, you can find the “Publications of the Rhode Island Historical Society, Volume 5” which can’t be viewed but the collection is available in the Internet Archives  Beginning on page 216, there's a long history of that site (who built what, and when), along with the story of the Turk's Head, which is long and somewhat disputed.  But it seems to have started as a ship's figurehead, and called (variously) the Sultan, Mustafa, or the Turk's Head, possibly as early as 1763.  The book goes on to say: 

When the "new" building was constructed in 1913, the architect naturally included a version of the head on the ship-like prow of the new building.  

For the second image...  a simple Google Image search gives us this response:

I'm obviously not the first person to take this picture.  

A simple query like: 

     [palau de la música catalana sculpture]

tells us (from multiple sources) that the building's architect was Lluís Domènech i Montaner. The large sculpture on the corner is by Miquel Blay, and is entitled La cançó popular catalana (1909). 

Catalan song is personified as a graceful maid before a group of male and female figures. Above them is a copy of a silver statuette of St. George in the Palau de la Generalitat de Catalunya chapel.
Now, can we figure out who the model was?  

In short... I wasn't able to do so.  After many attempts querying for "model" and reading about the life of Miguel Blay (aka Miquel Blay in Catalan, and full name: Miguel Blay y Fàbregas), and even trying queries like: 

     [ biografía Miquel OR Miguel Blay ] 

I struck out.  (With this query I was hoping to find a biography of his life, possibly with a chapter describing the time he was working on the Palau sculpture.  But no such luck.  If any of the SRS Regular Readers of Spanish happen to figure this one out, let me know!) 

I even checked out images of all of the Blay's sculptures, hoping to find a common thread among the young women in his statues, but that failed as well--he seems to have either used multiple models, or he has an extraordinary inventive capacity.  

Search lessons:  The foremost lesson is obvious--sometimes searches fail.  I wasn't able to figure out the model for the Palau sculpture, even though I spent a couple of (happy!) hours searching for it.  I'm reluctant to invest much more time because there's no evidence that he had a consistent female model for his works, or that he had a particular person in mind (as opposed to the generic "personification of music" that we found).  

For the Turk's Head building, the lesson here was that sometimes digging deeply into the Books actually pays off handsomely.  I wasn't able to find the Historical Society texts using just regular web search--the books content is buried a bit too deeply for that.  

Plus, looking up the text on the Internet Archive was a stroke of genius.  

Lots of stuff is out there, if only you keep looking, and bear in mind that sometimes you have to go to the door and open it up to see what's inside.  

Search on! 

Thursday, April 16, 2015

Going beyond the paywalls with paid databases

The last Challenge took me a while to figure out. 

Getting the answer wasn't that difficult, but figuring out how to do it without paying an arm and a leg... that was harder.  

Here's the situation:  If you're trying to research on a topic (say, cognitive psychology, or art history, or whatever), you can use Google to search over the "open web," that is, all the stuff that the Google spider has been able to crawl.  When you search on Google, you're really searching our index of content that the spiders have crawled.  

But some content can be crawled, but not displayed.  That is, in some cases, our spider can index the text of the document so you can find it, but when you click on the link, you might not be able to actually see the original source material.  

The thing is, lots of publishers don't provide open access to all of their content.  The let the spiders crawl the content (to make it searchable), but then put the content behind a paywall.  That makes sense if you're trying to make money, you want searchers to pay for the ability to search and read.  But it's kind of a pain if you're just trying to do research.  

Sometimes you'll find a document--say, a book like Schirmer Encyclopedia of Film.  This is a big (1200 pages) reference work that you might use to do some research on directors, films, genres, production methods, etc.  But it's also $528 new, and even used copies typically sell for around $400.  

This is a classic reference book, the kind you might find in library reference collections.  

Of course, getting access to it online would be incredibly handy--the kinds of search you can do in an online version of a book is very different than with a hardcopy version.  But the only way to get online access is through Gale's system--they have rights to the e-version of the book, and you have to use their system (which costs money) to access it.  

Luckily, some of this book is indexed by Google Books, so if your search on Books was: 

     [ "where only the Maltese Falcon (1941) have survived intact" ] 

you'd find this quotation in the Google Books copy of Shirmer Encyclopedia of Film: Academy Awards - Crime Films.  

BUT... notice that you have to search in Google Books for that quote.  Doing this search in regular Google doesn't find the book.  The only way to get access to the complete book is to be part of an institution that has a Gale account that you can use.  To get beyond the paywall means that you need to be affiliated with a university, or a really great public library.  (And in truth, all great Search Researchers try to develop and maintain such relationships--it's the only way to get access to this content.)  

However...sometimes there are other ways to get around the paywall.  In our last Search Challenge, you could do a regular Google search for the title of that paper we were interested in: 

     [ "Public response to an academic library microcatalog" ] 

 This is paper by Dwyer that looked interesting, but the first link goes to the public version of ERIC, and they don't have the full-text (at least not via the public web interface).  

But the second link looks like this: 

If you click on this link, it takes you to the EBSCO Host site, which has a very nice link to libraries near me, like this: 

This is great!  (Although, as I said in yesterday's post, the Palo Alto library doesn't actually HAVE EBSCO Host, so that link is broken.  Luckily, the Mountain View library does, and I have a library card there as well. When one link doesn't work, try the next--be a resilient searcher.)  

It's worth knowing about these paid databases, because they sometimes have the only online-available copy of an article.  

There are sometimes cases with workarounds...  For instance, sometimes an author will publish a paper where the paper is on a paywalled site.  For instance, there's a well known paper with the title, "Reflections of the environment in memory," which is available through the publisher for $35.  However, if you do a search like this, you can find copies that other people have put up on the open web (usually for educational purposes): 

     [ "reflections of the environment in memory" filetype:pdf ] 

I know it's sometimes hard to pay $35 for a paper from the publisher when you don't even know if it's what you're really looking for--so this is a way to see the entire paper without having to break the bank.  

Of course, if you find the paper to be what you want, and you end up using it in your research, the right thing to do is to go purchase a legal copy of the paper from the original publisher.  

Search Lessons:  There are several here... 

1.  Some online content can be found in slightly different forms than what you might expect.  That's the lesson of the Schirmer's guide.  If you only looked for the complete book, you might miss all of the different volumes as they exist in Google Books.  

2.  Sometimes, you just have to search Google Books.  Currently, even direct quotes from published books do not appear in a regular Google search--you still have to check Books.Google.com. (In theory this will improve over time, but as of today, you still have to go to Books.)  

3.  Be sure to notice that some content collections (e.g., EBSCO)  direct you local libraries that have access rights.  This is a wonderful service--use it when you can. 

4.  Sometimes you can do a workaround by searching for a PDF of the article.  With luck, you'll find a version of it somewhere on the web.  And, as I said, IF you use this article (or even read it end-to-end), you really should go buy the real PDF from the provider.  

5.  There are a lot of paid databases out there:  Learn which ones have what kind of content.  Obviously, this is a huge problem; in the future I'll write about the ones I use, and how I learned what's where.  

6. Be a part of the university / college / library ecosystem.  Having a couple of library cards (especially for libraries that have access to the paid databases) is incredibly valuable.  Besides, the librarians frequently know things that can shave hours off your research time.  One of their great strengths is knowing what all of the paid databases are and what they contain.  

That's it for today.  

Coming up, an answer to Rosemary's question about how to think about forming queries.  (I'll work on this while in-flight.) 

Search on!